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All you want to know about body hair


All you want to know about body hair

All you want to know about body hair
All you want to know about body hair

1. Each hair on your head has a continuous cyclic pattern of growth and rest called a ‘hair growth cycle’.
2. Human hair generally grows at a rate of about 1.27cm each month.
3. Aging causes permanent hair thinning or hair loss in both men and women as the body gradually becomes unable to replace shed hairs.

4. Hair has a lifespan of between two and six years. Whenever you shed a hair, a new one starts growing to replace it.        
5. Hair growth is usually less visible on curly hair.
6. In people with alopecia androgenetica (male or female pattern baldness), the hair growth cycle starts to weaken. As hair follicles shrink, shorter, finer hair strands are produced. Once the growth cycle eventually stops, no new hair grows in its place.
7. Alopecia androgenetica is a complex inherited condition that can go back six generations or even skip them, only to affect an individual that is the only one in his/her family to inherit this type of hair loss. 

8. The anticipation of sex makes hair grow faster. 
9. Each strand of hair can support up to 100 grams in weight. Multiply that by the average 100,000 to 150,000 strands on each head, and your entire head of hair could support the weight equivalent to two elephants. 
10. In 2002, researchers reported that people with ginger hair require 20 per cent more an aesthetic before surgery than blondes or brunettes.

Have you ever wondered why hair grows on some parts of your body, but not others?

All you want to know about body hair
All you want to know about body hair

New research offers a possible explanation. Scientists found that hairless skin secretes a protein that blocks a signaling pathway (WNT) that controls hair growth.

Called Dickkopf 2 (DKK2), the protein is found in specific embryonic and adult tissues and has a variety of functions, the University of Pennsylvania researchers explained.
They found that plantar skin from mice – similar to the underside of the human wrist – had high levels of DKK2. When they genetically removed DKK2 from the mice, hair began to grow in this normally hairless skin region.
Hair formation

"This is significant because it tells us WNT is still present in hairless regions, it's just being blocked," said study co-senior author Sarah Millar, director of the Penn Skin Biology and Diseases Resource-Based Center.
"We know that WNT signalling is critical for the development of hair follicles; blocking it causes hairless skin, and switching it on causes formation of more hair," Millar said in a Penn news release.
"In this study, we've shown the skin in hairless regions naturally produces an inhibitor that stops WNT from doing its job," she added.
Hair follicles develop before birth. This means that hair follicles don't regrow after severe burns or deep wounds. The researchers are currently investigating whether secreted WNT inhibitors suppress hair follicle development in such cases.

More than 80 million people in the United States have male- or female-pattern baldness, according to the American Academy of Dermatology. Previous research suggests that DKK2 may be associated with this condition, meaning it could be a potential target for treatment.
"We hope that these lines of investigation will reveal new ways to improve wound healing and hair growth, and we plan to continue to pursue these goals moving forward," Millar said.
The study was published in the journal Cell Reports.


10 Tips for a Healthy Lifestyle


10 Tips for a Healthy Lifestyle

10 Tips for a Healthy Lifestyle1
 10Tips to a Healthy Lifestyle

1. Ditch resolutions.

The trouble with resolutions is that we often don’t follow through and succeed with them. Why? Because a resolution is more like a temporary pledge -- you never really set up your lifestyle in a way that supports the change. Lasting success comes when you create habits that support the changes you want to see in your life. It means not giving up when you have a slip-up and sticking with it even during difficult, stressful times. 

This year, be bold and ditch the New Year’s resolution. Instead, use the momentum of the New Year to cultivate healthy habits that you can maintain for a lifetime. Building consistent, healthy habits is the key to lifelong well-being. After all, what we do every day matters more than what we do once in a while.

2. Identify the areas you need to strengthen for long-term health.

We all know we need to eat right, exercise, get plenty of sleep and drink lots of water in order to be healthy. Many of us think we’re doing a decent job of being healthy. However, most of us are not. One study found that very few adults (only 3 percent) actually meet all the criteria of living a healthy lifestyle. Researchers looked at four keys to healthfulness, including:

  • Not smoking.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight (a BMI of 18-25), or successfully losing weight.
  • Eating at least five servings of fruits and vegetables daily.

Exercising 30 minutes or more, five times a week.
Few of us actually do all these things. And while these are important, there is more to good health than checking those boxes. It’s also about having a positive attitude, a positive self-image, taking care of your mental health and spending time with friends and family. So, before you enter into a commitment to begin a healthier “you” in the New Year, decide which areas you desire to strengthen. Begin with your top one or two areas and work down your list.

3. Know what works for you.

Your ability to maintain a healthy lifestyle will depend on coming up with strategies that work with your personality. Take a moment to reflect on the times you succeeded and the times you struggled. What circumstances were most helpful to you and encouraged you to do your best?

What situations did you find distracting? What kept you from sticking with your goals? Whatever your goals are, before you can make changes to your lifestyle, you need to know where you’re starting from and understand your reasons for making changes. Know what works for you and what doesn’t.

4. Disrupt and change unhealthy habits.

The things we do on a regular basis, from brushing our teeth to the snacks we reach for, often become our habits. The first step toward changing any behavior is to evaluate our current habits.

If you’re in the habit of exercising every morning, that’s good. If you’re also in the habit of buying a bag of chips and a soda every afternoon, that’s not. You need to look for ways to disrupt the patterns of unhealthy habits and establish new patterns, while continuing with your healthy habits. Start making small daily changes. Pack healthy snacks to take to work. Carry a refillable water bottle with you so you can stay hydrated throughout the day.

5. Make small, powerful changes.

Don’t try to make huge, sweeping life changes all at once. That can leave you feeling overwhelmed and tempted to give up altogether. Start small and build. If you’re trying to get in the habit of working out more often but are out of shape and intimidated by the idea of exercise, start by doing the easiest, least-daunting exercise you can do. Try walking around the block for 10 minutes when you get home from work. Or even just doing a five-minute workout in your living room.

Whatever it is, start doing it on a daily basis. Once it feels like a normal part of your life, you can gradually increase it. If you have a setback, don’t beat yourself up; just go back to doing what you were doing. The goal is to create habits that feel easy to achieve.

6. Build a life that blends work and fun.

10 Tips for a Healthy Lifestyle
10 Tips for a Healthy Lifestyle

Many successful entrepreneurs claim that work–life balance is a myth. The concept of finding balance often forces us to make concessions. We feel like we’re in a huge juggling act, and we’re left dizzy with obligations and stress. Instead, embrace the fact that work and life are often blurred. More and more, companies understand that we need to address life matters while at work and that we need flexibility in our work schedules.

The point is, instead of focusing on the boundaries where your work life ends and personal life begins, look for ways to blend the elements of your life. Focus on making consistent, healthy, positive choices that reflect your values, responsibilities and goals across all the aspects of life.

7. Eat a healthy diet.
As the saying goes, you are what you eat. The meals and snacks we consume have a direct impact on our health. That doesn’t mean you should skip exercise -- regular workouts will keep your metabolism revved up and help you burn fat. But you can’t out-exercise a bad diet. A poor diet can cause a myriad of dire health problems, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke, and these problems are increasingly being seen at a young age.

Even if you’re a healthy weight, making sure you eat a nutritious diet is important to your long-term health. That means cutting back on sugar, boosting your intake of veggies and fruits, and avoiding processed “convenience” food. You don’t have to give up all things yummy and fattening, but practice portion control.

8. Get enough quality sleep.
Sometimes we overlook the importance of getting enough sleep. After all, if we’re eating right, working out and avoiding bad habits like smoking, does it really matter if we’re getting the recommended 8 hours of sleep a night? It sure does! Sleep plays a vital role in our health and well-being through our lives.

Getting enough quality sleep aids in both mental and physical health. Sleep is key to brain function -- it affects how well you learn, work, think, react and get along with others. Having an ongoing sleep deficiency raises your risk for chronic health problems.

During the day, your body gets broken down by your environment and the tasks you perform. Sleep restores you. Make sure you make sleep a cornerstone of your new healthy lifestyle.

9. Manage stress.
Our world requires us to live in a highly active and pressurized environment. Activities in our lives occur so fast it’s often a struggle to keep up.

This causes stress to accumulate. It’s important that we distinguish between the things that are within our control and the things that aren’t. For example, getting a flat tire is out of your control, but getting a bad review for mediocre work is within your control.

You can reduce and manage your stress by taking control of the things you can control. This way, when unexpected stressful events occur, you will be relaxed enough to focus on them and solve those problems without becoming overwhelmed. You can also engage in relaxing therapies such as meditation and breathing deeply to help you manage feelings of stress.

10. Slow down and reflect on the moment.
Many of us are so focused on our jobs and everyday tasks that we forget to enjoy the moment we are experiencing.

Pause throughout your day and appreciate the beauty of the world around you, the sound of laughter, how the sun feels on your face, how your legs feel as you walk. Make time to enjoy each part of your day, and then step back and enjoy the process you are a part of.


8 ways to protect your family from worms

8 ways to protect your family from worms
8 ways to protect your family from worms

Deworming your family has become a lot easier and more affordable, but staying free of these pesky parasites is the real challenge. Here are eight ways to protect your family from getting infected:
1. Keep children’s fingernails short and clean to keep dirt containing worm eggs from getting lodged under their nails.
2. Stop your pets from giving worms to the family by putting them on a parasite control programme from your vet.
8 ways to protect your family from worms
8 ways to protect your family from worms

3. Wash your hands before handling food.
4. Wash all fruit, salads and vegetables before use.
5. Rinse all meats before preparing them for cooking.
6. Make sure your children wash their hands with soap and clean water after using the toilet.
8 ways to protect your family from worms
8 ways to protect your family from worms

7. Do not drink water that may be dirty.
8. Wear shoes to stop worms entering through the feet.


5Ways to Lose Weight Without Dieting


5 Ways to Lose Weight Without Dieting

5 Ways to Lose Weight Without Dieting

1.    Eat Breakfast Every Day. 

      One habit that's common to many people who have lost weight and kept it off is eating breakfast every day. "Many people think skipping breakfast is a great way to cut calories, but they usually end up eating more throughout the day, says Elizabeth Ward, MS, RD, author of The Pocket Idiot's Guide to the New Food Pyramids. "Studies show people who eat breakfast have lower BMIs than breakfast-skippers and perform better, whether at school or in the boardroom." Try a bowl of whole-grain cereal topped with fruit and low-fat dairy for a quick and nutritious start to your day.

2.    Close the Kitchen at Night.

     Establish a time when you will stop eating so you won't give in to the late-night munchies or mindless snacking while watching television. "Have a cup of tea, suck on a piece of hard candy or enjoy a small bowl of light ice cream or frozen yogurt if you want something sweet after dinner, but then brush your teeth so you will be less likely to eat or drink anything else

3.    Choose Liquid Calories Wisely. 

     Sweetened drinks pile on the calories, but don't reduce hunger like solid foods do. Satisfy your thirst with water, sparkling water with citrus, skim or low-fat milk, or small portions of 100% fruit juice. Try a glass of nutritious and low-calorie vegetable juice to hold you over if you get hungry between meals. Be careful of alcohol calories, which add up quickly. If you tend to drink a glass or two of wine or a cocktail on most days, limiting alcohol to the weekends can be a huge calorie saver.

4.    Have Protein at Every Meal and Snack. 

     Adding a source of lean or low-fat protein to each meal and snack will help keep you feeling full longer so you're less likely to overeat. Try low-fat yogurt, small portion of nuts, peanut butter, eggs, beans, or lean meats. Experts also recommend eating small, frequent meals and snacks (every 3-4 hours), to keep your blood sugar levels steady and to avoid overindulging.

5.    Switch to Lighter Alternatives.

    Whenever you can, use the low-fat versions of salad dressings, mayonnaise, dairy products, and other products. "You can trim calories effortlessly if you use low-fat and lighter products, and if the product is mixed in with other ingredients, no one will ever notice," says Magee. More smart substitutions: Use salsa or hummus as a dip; spread sandwiches with mustard instead of mayo; eat plain roasted sweet potatoes instead of loaded white potatoes; use skim milk instead of cream in your coffee; hold the cheese on sandwiches; and use a little vinaigrette on your salad instead of piling on the creamy dressing.

Unfortunately losing weight won't automatically get rid of cellulite.


Unfortunately losing weight won't automatically get rid of cellulite.

Unfortunately losing weight won't automatically get rid of cellulite.

When you lose weight, you’d probably expect that you’d lose (or at least reduce the appearance of) your lumps and bumps, too.

But, unfortunately, that’s often not the case. What gives?

Dr John Layke, a board-certified plastic surgeon and practitioner at the Beverly Hills Plastic Surgery Group, explains that those dimples are caused by fibrous bands.

is incredibly common – studies estimate that 80 to 90% of women have it. But what causes it varies person to person, says Dr Jennifer Caudle, a family physician and Associate Professor at Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine. 

She says that how much cellulite a person has depends on a number of factors, including genetics, age, skin thickness, sex and the amount of fat on the body.

Dr Caudle notes Dr.Caudle notes that people of all weights and sizes can and do have cellulite.
The bottom line: Losing weight won’t automatically get rid of cellulite, but Dr Layke does say that diet and exercise could maybe help reduce the appearance over time. 
He recommends high-intensity workouts, which provide a mixture of fat loss and muscle toning. This can cause the layer of fat under your skin to decrease in thickness, also decreasing the tautness of the fibrous bands. 

Unfortunately losing weight won't automatically get rid of cellulite.
Unfortunately losing weight won't automatically get rid of cellulite.

But again, cellulite might never go away completely simply because of your body’s makeup.
Research suggests that there’s a genetic component to cellulite, meaning it can’t necessarily be eliminated through exercise alone.

“Contrary to popular belief, cellulite is not a weight issue,” Dr Dendy Engelman, of Manhattan Dermatology and Cosmetic Surgery, previously told Women’s Health. “Even very thin people can have cellulite and it is considered normal from a medical standpoint to have some.”
Some beauty treatments and creams claim to target cellulite, but experts are skeptical of their efficacy. 

“The skepticism arrives from the fact that no topical treatment can effectively treat something that occurs on the complete undersurface of the skin,” Dr Layke explains. “However, topical creams can target dry, crepe-y skin by hydrating and moisturising the skin – thereby creating the illusion that cellulite is reduced.”

Alas, “there are no current treatments that will eliminate cellulite completely,” Dr Layke says. So you might as well just embrace it.

Can a vitamin pill a day keep the doctor away


Can a vitamin pill a day keep the doctor away?

Can a vitamin pill a day keep the doctor away

The vitamin industry is booming and we Brits have bought into it in a big way.

Nearly half of us take a vitamin and/or mineral supplement every day according to Mintel. Many of us aren't taking them to treat a deficiency – we're popping pills in the belief they will boost our health. With so many supplements available, lots of which combine different vitamins and minerals into multivitamins, it's difficult to know which (if any) will do you good.
You need 13 vitamins to maintain health, but should you take any of them in supplement form?

Do you need to top up your vits every day?

Can a vitamin pill a day keep the doctor away
Can a vitamin pill a day keep the doctor away
There are two types of vitamins: fat-soluble and water-soluble.

  1. Fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamins A, D, E and K) are stored by your body, so you can maintain your supplies without eating them every day. The downside is you can overdose on them, so it's really important not to take excessive amounts.

  1. Water-soluble vitamins (Vitamin C and B vitamins such as folic acid) cannot be stored by your body, so you need to consume a steady supply. But if you eat more of any one of these vitamins than you need, you will excrete the excess in urine. However, Vitamin B12 can be stored by your liver.

Some multivitamin pills also contain minerals and trace elements, particularly calcium, zinc and iron. You should be able to get enough of these three minerals from your diet unless you have a condition that increases your requirement.
  • Calcium is needed for strong bones; you need 700mg per day.
  • Zinc is needed for your immune and digestive system; women need 7mg per day, men 9.5mg per day.
  • Iron is needed to release energy for food and to transport oxygen around your blood. Women aged 19-50 need 14.8mg iron per day, men 8.7mg.

Can a vitamin pill a day keep the doctor away
Can a vitamin pill a day keep the doctor away

Who may benefit from taking a supplement?

  • The NHS advises people living in the UK to take Vitamin D supplements in the autumn and winter. Vitamin D helps us to absorb calcium, keeping our teeth, bones and muscles strong and healthy. It also helps us absorb phosphate and magnesium.
  • Those with a poor appetite and the elderly may benefit from taking a targeted multivitamin. Your doctor should be able to advise you. The elderly or housebound should also take Vitamin D supplements, with calcium for absorption, all year round.
  • If you are on a diet that restricts certain foods, whether as a lifestyle choice or for weight loss, you might benefit from taking supplements to replace the nutrients found in those foods. It is worth considering a multivitamin if you are on a very low-calorie diet. Here are other diets that might require supplements:
    • Dairy-free diets may be complemented by a calcium supplement or calcium-fortified products.
    • Vegans and those who don’t consume many animal products have the potential to be deficient in vitamin B12 and calcium, so a supplement in these nutrients is recommended.
  • Girls and women who have heavy periods may not be eating enough iron to replace the loss. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey finds that 4.8% of women aged 35-49 have iron-deficiency anaemia, while 12.5% have low iron stores. Always consult your doctor before taking iron supplements.

  • Women trying to conceive and in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy are advised to take folic acid supplements. This reduces their child’s risk of neural tube defects such as spina bifida.

Can a vitamin pill a day keep the doctor away
Can a vitamin pill a day keep the doctor away

Vitamin C tablets – life savers or time wasters?

People have been taking Vitamin C to stave off a cold for years. It has a reputation of being a 'superfood', as it is an antioxidant. However, there is little evidence that it can prevent infections, disease or treat early cold symptoms. The body cannot store excess Vitamin C, so if you consume too much you will excrete it in urine, giving you expensive wee.
Vitamin C is widely available in fruit and vegetables. A single orange contains around 70mg (compared to the UK recommended intake of 40mg), so deficiency is rare.

How many vitamins do you need?

The amount of vitamins and minerals that you need is unique to you. It depends on your age, activity levels, gender and other variables. See the NHS vitamin and mineral guide at the bottom of this article for more details on RNIs (Reference Nutrient Intakes).
Most experts believe we can get all the vitamins and minerals we need from a healthy, balanced diet, with the exception of Vitamin D. However, the National Diet and Nutrition Survey shows that some of us fail to meet all the RNIs and try to make up for the shortfall by self-medicating with multivitamin supplements rather than reassessing our diet. Eating your 5-a-day will have you well on the way!