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Sunday, January 6, 2019

Physical activity guidelines for older adults


Physical activity guidelines for older adults

Physical activity guidelines for older adults
Physical activity guidelines for older adults

How much physical activity do older adults aged 65 and over need to do to keep healthy?

The amount of physical activity you need to do each week depends on your age and level of health.
To stay healthy or to improve health, older adults need to do two types of physical activity each week: aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity.

Why physical activity is important

Physical activity has many benefits for older people. It not only helps you to feel better physically and emotionally, it:
  • helps to control weight, blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes and bone and joint problems like arthritis)
  • reduces the risk of heart disease, stroke and some cancers
  • helps to manage pain
  • helps to maintain and increase joint movement
Importantly, it helps to reduce the risk of injury from falls, a major concern with ageing.

How much physical activity do you need?

Adults aged 65 or older who are generally fit and have no health conditions that limit their mobility, should try to be active daily.
It's recommended that adults aged 65 or older do at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most, preferably all, days.
Some activity, however light, is better for your health than none at all — you should aim to do something, no matter what your age, weight, health problems or abilities. You should aim to active every day in as many ways as possible, doing a range of physical activities that incorporate fitness, strength, balance and flexibility.

What counts as moderate-intensity aerobic activity?

Moderate-intensity aerobic activity means you're working hard enough to raise your heart rate and break a sweat. One way to tell if you're working at a moderate intensity is if you can still talk but you can't sing the words to a song.
Examples of activities that require moderate effort for most people include:
  • walking fast
  • doing water aerobics
  • ballroom and line dancing
  • riding a bike on level ground or with a few hills
  • playing doubles tennis
  • pushing a lawn mower
  • canoeing
  • volleyball
Daily activities such as shopping, cooking or housework don't count towards your daily 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity. This is because the effort required isn't hard enough to increase your heart rate.
However, it's important to minimise the amount of time you spend sitting watching TV, reading or listening to music. Some activity, however light, is better for your health than none at all.

What counts as vigorous-intensity aerobic activity?

Vigorous-intensity aerobic activity means you're breathing hard and fast, and your heart rate has gone up quite a bit. If you're working at this level, you won't be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath, and you should stop if you feel unwell.
The Australian Physical Activity Guide for Older Australians doesn’t recommend you exercise to this level, but it’s OK if you do. If you have enjoyed a lifetime of vigorous physical activity, you should carry on doing it in a way that suits you now, provided you stick to recommended safety procedures and guidelines.

What counts as muscle-strengthening activity?

Muscle-strengthening exercises are counted in repetitions and sets. A repetition is 1 complete movement of an activity, like lifting a weight or doing a sit-up. A set is a group of repetitions.
For each activity, try to do 8 to 12 repetitions in each set. Try to do at least 1 set of each muscle-strengthening activity. You'll get even more benefits if you do 2 or 3 sets.
To gain health benefits from muscle-strengthening activities, you should do them to the point where you find it hard to complete another repetition.
There are many ways you can strengthen your muscles, whether at home or in the gym. Examples of muscle-strengthening activities include:
  • carrying or moving heavy loads such as groceries
  • activities that involve stepping and jumping such as dancing
  • heavy gardening, such as digging or shovelling
  • exercises that use your body weight for resistance, such as push-ups or sit-ups
  • yoga
  • lifting weights
Make a time to do specific strength exercises 2 or 3 times a week, and build some of them into your everyday activities.

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

Is hair color safe ?


Is hair color safe ?

Is hair color safe ?
Is hair color safe ?

Hair dyes are as common as lipstick, with nearly as many shades. But some researchers say these popular beauty products have an ugly flip side:
They may cause cancer. The Medical Detective asked experts, “Should she, or shouldn’t she?” Read on to learn the truth about coloring hair, where the harshest chemicals lurk and how to tone down gray the healthy way...
Here are some you’ll encounter in the four most common types of hair dyes: 

These hair dyes, available in most major brands, including L’Oreal and Garnier Nutrisse, are used by about 80% of consumers. They cause lasting chemical changes in the hair shaft. Permanent dyes contain a cocktail of chemicals (the darker the hair dye, the higher the concentration that may cause cancer). Among them: 
Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) creates dramatic color changes – going from blond to brunette, for example – but has caused cancer in animals, according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which regulates some hair dyes. Women worried about hair dye’s cancer risk should “decrease their frequency of permanent hair dye use or use non-chemical-based or natural hair dye [without PPD],” advises Manuela Gago-Dominguez, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor at the Keck School of Medicine and USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center in Los Angeles.
Coal tar is a combination of chemicals that create longer-lasting colors than natural, vegetable dyes. It also caused cancer in laboratory animals, according to the FDA. Because of that, products with coal tar must include a warning saying some people may experience skin sensitivity; users should perform a skin test before use; they should follow instructions provided; and the product must not be used for dyeing eyelashes or eyebrows – to do so may cause blindness.

Hydrogen peroxide,a key ingredient in permanent dyes, removes your natural color and readies it for a new shade. Peroxide damages hair, and its sulfurous smell may cause eyes to sting.
Ammonia makes hair color last longer, but high exposure can irritate skin. Most more-expensive, at-home products, such as L’Oreal and Garnier, are ammonia-free.
Semi- and demi-permanent:
These hair dyes add color but don’t lighten hair. Semi-permanent dyes last for about 6-12 shampoos; demi-permanent 24-26 shampoos. Both may contain some peroxide.

Temporary hair dye: 
Consisting of water, organic solvents and other agents, these cover the hair shaft but don’t penetrate it, according to the American Cancer Society (ACS). They come in rinses, gels and sprays and usually last 1-2 hair washings.

Natural hair dye: 

Henna – sold by Light Mountain, for example – is chemical-free and can last up to 6 weeks. It doesn’t do a great job of coloring gray, however, and needs to be refreshed every 2-4 weeks.

Coloring Hair Risk #2: Frequency The number of times you dye your hair may increase your cancer risk. Women who colored their hair with permanent dye at least once a month for a year or longer doubled their odds of developing bladder cancer over those who didn’t, according to a 2001 University of Southern California study.

The risk triples if you’ve used permanent dye for 15 years or more, and rises 50% if you’re a professional stylist or barber working with dyes for just a year. It’s five times as harmful for stylists with more than 10 years’ exposure.

Bladder cancer isn’t the only illness to fear. Women who used dark permanent dyes and colored eight times a year or more for at least 25 years had double the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), according to a four-year study published in 2004 in the American Journal of Epidemiology. Those who went blond showed no such risk increase.

Coloring Hair Risk #3: Your DNA Your genetic makeup also may make you more susceptible to bladder cancer if you use permanent dyes, according to a 2011 study by the International Journal of Cancer.

The crucial factor was how fast women flushed out arylamines, which are derivatives of ammonia absorbed through the skin during the dyeing process. Permanent dyes contain more of the toxic compound than semi-permanent dyes, says Gago-Dominguez, a lead author of an earlier USC study with the same findings.

Researchers found one slow gene was associated with triple the risk of bladder cancer. There was a 6.8-fold risk increase for women with another type of slow gene.
Coloring Hair Risk #4: 
When You Started Dyeing Started dyeing your hair before 1980? Then you have a 40% greater risk of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, according to a 2008 combined analysis of four case-control studies that included more than 4,000 women with NHL and about 5,800 women without the disease.

That’s because earlier hair dyes contained chemicals such as aromatic amines, organic compounds joined to an aromatic structure that can harm your health. There was no increased risk among women who began using hair dye after 1980 because the FDA issued warnings about such chemicals and manufacturers dropped them from products.

Coloring Hair Risk #5: 
Pregnancy Hair dyes probably are safe to use during pregnancy for both mom and fetus because absorption through the skin is minimal, according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 
Still, pregnant women should think twice about coloring hair, especially with coal-tar-based products, Gago-Dominguez advises. 
“Permanent dyes are the ones that have been associated with an increased risk” of cancer, she says. 
Pregnant women already are exposed to many pollutants and chemicals during pregnancy, adds Tongzhang Zheng, D.Sc., professor of epidemiology at Yale School of Public Health. 
“This is one more - but it’s optional. Do they want that extra exposure?”

Major studies funded by the National Institutes of Health about the effects of dye during pregnancy are underway worldwide, Zheng says, following women from pregnancy through childbirth.

Coloring Your Hair Safely If the money spent on coloring hair is any indication, women are not about to stop, cancer risk or no. Americans bought $1.6 billion in at-home hair color products in 2010, according to Euromonitor International, a market research firm that tracks sales of beauty and personal-care products.

For safest results, professionals encourage do-it-yourselfers to:

  1. Keep the mixture on your hair only as long as recommended on the box, says veteran colorist Sheri Caroll at George Caroll Salon in Los Angeles.
  2. Wear gloves when applying the mixture. Some chemicals are toxic, so minimize exposure.
  3. Try to keep the color off your scalp, a pathway to internal chemical exposure. Skin exposure also raises your risk of an allergic reaction. Applying with a brush or comb may help keep dye from your scalp.
  4. Don’t combine different hair dye products; they may have harmful reactions.
  5. Rinse your scalp thoroughly with water after dyeing.

6.Read the box ingredients for PPD, resorcinol or triethanolamine, commonly used strong chemicals in permanent hair dyes that may be toxic.

  • 7.Consider natural dyes, like henna. “Natural hair dye is safer” than chemical dyes, says Sonya Lunder, MPH, a senior analyst for the EWG.

Tuesday, December 11, 2018

Steps to Have a Healthy Pregnancy


Steps to Have a Healthy Pregnancy

Steps to Have a Healthy Pregnancy
Steps to Have a Healthy Pregnancy

Your Changing Body

Every part of your body changes during pregnancy. Some changes (such as weight gain and frequent urination) are caused by your growing baby. Other changes are due to your changing hormonal levels, especially emotional ups and downs and changes in sexual desire.
Emotional support, love, and affection are important throughout your pregnancy. Talk to family and friends. Ask for help when you need it, even if it just means having a familiar hand to hold in the waiting room during a regular checkup.

Unless your provider says otherwise, you can continue to have sex. Be sure to discuss how you're feeling about sex with your partner. Some women experience more interest in sex; others have less interest. Neither is cause for concern.

Steps to Have a Healthy Pregnancy

A healthier body = A healthier baby. Take a prenatal or one-a-day vitamin with folate each day. Folate, or folic acid, is a B vitamin that helps prevent birth defects such as spina bifida ("open spine") and anencephaly ("absent brain"). Getting 0.4 to 0.8 milligrams (400 to 800 micrograms) a day early in pregnancy can prevent over half of these defects.

Get regular exercise. Most types of exercise — including running, bicycling, weight training, and swimming — are safe to do if you don't let yourself get overheated. Drink lots of water.

Don't drink alcohol, including beer, wine, wine coolers, and liquor. Alcohol can cause low birth weight, stillbirth, miscarriage, and birth defects such as fetal alcohol syndrome. If you have a problem with alcohol, talk to your health care provider 

Don't smoke. If you do, your baby smokes too. Moms who smoke have a greater chance of having a miscarriage, stillbirth, baby with low birth weight, and a child who grows up to smoke. If you smoke and want to quit, talk to your health care provider or check out the smoking-cessation programs.

Don't use "street" drugs. Even small amounts of drugs such as cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamine can cause severe injury or be fatal to your baby. We don't understand all of the effects of marijuana during pregnancy, so don't use it. If you have a problem with drugs, talk to your health care provider 

Stay out of hot tubs and saunas. Sitting in a hot tub or sauna raises your body temperature. This might not be good for your baby, especially in the first trimester.

Avoiding Infectious Disease

Talk to your doctor about getting a flu shot. Flu season, when you have the greatest chance of catching influenza, is typically November through March. Pregnancy places you and your baby at greater risk for health problems from the flu.

We recommend that you get a flu shot to lower your chances of catching the flu. Flu shots are safe for you and your baby.

Stay away from people who have chicken pox, shingles, or other viral illnesses. Some viruses can harm your baby's health. If you are exposed during your pregnancy, call your health care provider for advice.

Monday, November 19, 2018

5Ways to Lose Weight Without Dieting


5 Ways to Lose Weight Without Dieting

5 Ways to Lose Weight Without Dieting
 5Ways to Lose Weight Without Dieting

1.    Eat Breakfast Every Day. 
      One habit that's common to many people who have lost weight and kept it off is eating breakfast every day. "Many people think skipping breakfast is a great way to cut calories, but they usually end up eating more throughout the day, says Elizabeth Ward, MS, RD, author of The Pocket Idiot's Guide to the New Food Pyramids. "Studies show people who eat breakfast have lower BMIs than breakfast-skippers and perform better, whether at school or in the boardroom." Try a bowl of whole-grain cereal topped with fruit and low-fat dairy for a quick and nutritious start to your day.

2.    Close the Kitchen at Night.
     Establish a time when you will stop eating so you won't give in to the late-night munchies or mindless snacking while watching television. "Have a cup of tea, suck on a piece of hard candy or enjoy a small bowl of light ice cream or frozen yogurt if you want something sweet after dinner, but then brush your teeth so you will be less likely to eat or drink anything else

3.    Choose Liquid Calories Wisely. 
     Sweetened drinks pile on the calories, but don't reduce hunger like solid foods do. Satisfy your thirst with water, sparkling water with citrus, skim or low-fat milk, or small portions of 100% fruit juice. Try a glass of nutritious and low-calorie vegetable juice to hold you over if you get hungry between meals. Be careful of alcohol calories, which add up quickly. If you tend to drink a glass or two of wine or a cocktail on most days, limiting alcohol to the weekends can be a huge calorie saver.

4.    Have Protein at Every Meal and Snack. 
     Adding a source of lean or low-fat protein to each meal and snack will help keep you feeling full longer so you're less likely to overeat. Try low-fat yogurt, small portion of nuts, peanut butter, eggs, beans, or lean meats. Experts also recommend eating small, frequent meals and snacks (every 3-4 hours), to keep your blood sugar levels steady and to avoid overindulging.

5.    Switch to Lighter Alternatives.
    Whenever you can, use the low-fat versions of salad dressings, mayonnaise, dairy products, and other products. "You can trim calories effortlessly if you use low-fat and lighter products, and if the product is mixed in with other ingredients, no one will ever notice," says Magee. More smart substitutions: Use salsa or hummus as a dip; spread sandwiches with mustard instead of mayo; eat plain roasted sweet potatoes instead of loaded white potatoes; use skim milk instead of cream in your coffee; hold the cheese on sandwiches; and use a little vinaigrette on your salad instead of piling on the creamy dressing.

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